A Google penalty corresponds to the failure to comply with the instructions proposed by Google, here is an example of a penalty for artificial links that you can find in the Search Console :
Artificial links from https://www.domaine.com/ violate Google Guidelines for webmasters
To: Owner of https://www.domaine.com/,
We have detected a system of links between your site and other sites that may be either artificial or inappropriate, which attempts to artificially increase the ranking of other sites in our search results by giving preference to irrelevant results over requests from Internet users, thereby violating the Google guidelines for webmastersTherefore, we have decided to give less credit to your site's links, and the manual action for spam has been applied specifically to domain.com/.
To resolve this issue, please correct the links by following the instructions below, then submit a review request in the Search Console, and we will cancel the manual action applied to your website when the Google Search Quality team determines that the issue has been successfully resolved.
Find an example of a bad link on https://www.domaine.com/nom-de-la-page/, look for the text of the "foldable smartphone" link
Here's how to solve this problem:
- Identify all the artificial links on your site
Look for links that have been added to your site in exchange for compensation, such as money, goods, services or reciprocal links.
- Delete these links or use the attribute
The "nofollow" attribute allows you to ask us not to explore a particular link.
- Send a request for reconsideration
Include in your application any details or documents that may help us understand the changes made to your site.